From Hairballs to Arthritis, Pet Nutritional Supplements Tries to Solve it All

We may have a lot of differences with dogs and cats in terms of anatomy and physiology but it appears we are no different in nutrition development. Just as dietary supplements have become a growing trend for us upright creatures, the current craze for our four-legged friends are nutritional supplements. Although veterinarians and other animal experts don’t seem to see eye to eye regarding this matter, nutritional supplements for pets have become a major force in the animal feed department.

Besides the vast number of producers and distributors of nutritional supplements for pets, these more natural alternatives to pet food come in increasingly specific varieties. Above and beyond the vitamins, minerals typical of a food supplement, there are those with anti-oxidants and immuno-stimulants, digestion and elimination supplements, and high energy nutritional supplements.

Our pets won’t get left behind when it comes to staying slim, too, as there are nutritional supplements for pets that are specifically designed for weight loss! Also, if your kitten or puppy does not get enough milk, there are supplements that act as milk replacer!

There are even nutritional supplements for pets that aid in keeping them well-groomed. Skin/coat supplements and laxatives and hairball treatments make it easier for you to keep your pet always looking trim. Unless you’re one who garbs your pet in cute shirts, their basic all-around outfit is their skin or fur.

In the same way that we suffer stress and pain, our pets do, too. But pet supplements providers have got this covered! There are nutritional supplements for pets that serve to reduce pain, stress, and anxiety. If your pet experiences arthritis and joint pains in particular, there are supplements especially for that! These are said to be pretty helpful also as prevention to strengthen your pet’s bones even before arthritis sets in.

It’s interesting to note the sort of disclaimer that’s always present in the promotional materials. Most nutritional supplements promise a lot of benefits but it’s always balanced off with notices that results may vary depending on your pet’s response. So one might say it doesn’t really guarantee you anything. Pretty consistent with human nutritional supplements. Basically, it leaves you to choose whether to give it a try and see if it works.

There are countless testimonies as to the effectiveness of certain nutritional supplements for pets, some even from certified experts and doctors. But, it’s still you who decides what’s best for your pet. At the very least, giving ALL or a random pick of these supplements might not be a good idea. Consulting your personal veterinarian is.

At the onset, you should consult your veterinarian about the diet of your pet. Some pet specialists argue that nutritional supplements for pets are unnecessary since the formulated pet food already has sufficient nutrients and you only have to choose the best kind for your pet. Whether they are right or not, it is smart to find out what is or what’s not in the food you’re already feeding your pet.

Horse Feeding Tips

A horse’s nutritional requirements and his digestive system have not changed since the time he was first domesticated thousands of years ago. However, due to a lack of knowledge, convenience considerations and an over-zealous adoption of the scientific claims of the feed industry, the way we feed a horse has changed dramatically. Often, these methods contradict what natural horsemanship tells us about feeding and result in health problems for the horse and management problems for owner.

Certain principles of natural horsemanship can be applied to choosing a proper feeding program for the horse. Just as we studied aspects of horse physiology and psychology when approaching training techniques, it is beneficial to think in these terms when we decide how to feed our horses. This will tell us both what to feed and how to feed.

It doesn’t take an expert in natural horsemanship or equine nutrition to understand that feeding flakes of alfalfa and grain supplements twice a day to a horse in a stall is not what Mother Nature intended. Indeed, that approach completely ignores a few basic principles that every horse owner should know about their four-legged charges.

A horse’s digestive system is designed to obtain the maximum nutritional benefit from a diet of high-fiber and low-energy grasses. The foundation of a healthy, natural diet for a modern, domesticated horse is grass and grass hay. A horse in his natural environment will spend many hours a day grazing. Most experts say that a horse needs to consume at least 1.5 – 2 lb. of good quality hay and grain for every 100 lbs of body weight. Much will depend upon the metabolism of the horse. Horses that are heavily worked, pregnant and lactating mares will consume up to 3 lbs of dry matter for every 100 lbs. of body weight.

Grass hay is much preferable to alfalfa for the bulk for the horse’s diet for several reasons. Alfalfa is a very rich or “hot” feed for the horse. It contains approximately 50% more protein and energy per pound than grass hay. Its phosphorous to calcium ratio is also too high for a horse’s requirements. When fed with grain, as alfalfa often is, numerous digestive problems including colic may result. Alfalfa may be fed but only in small quantities almost as a supplement, not as the predominant feed component.

Not all hay is the same. The nutritional content of hay depends not only on the variety of grass grown, but also on the soil and amount and type of fertilizer used. Hay quality also can vary and should be examined prior to purchasing. Good hay exhibits the following qualities:

1. Should be leafy as opposed to containing too many stems. Most of hay’s protein is contained in the leaves.

2. Good-quality hay should exhibit a light green color. If it is too yellow or brown, it might have been harvested too late and may not contain proper nutrients.

3. The hay should smell fresh and sweet. Hay that smells moldy or musty should be avoided. Feeding moldy hay can result in colic.

4. Check for weeds and other non-hay matter. Good horse hay should contain a bare minimum of weeds, sticks and debris.

Unfortunately, hay comes without supermarket labels specifying nutritional content, but often a reputable hay supplier will have a laboratory analysis available for a particular cutting of hay he is selling. Parameters to look for include:

1. Moisture: usually averages around 10%. Higher than 13% may result in palatability problems and even mold proliferation.

2. Crude protein: Legume hay will run 20% or more. High quality grass hay might run as high as 12-15%. A minimum should be at least 8%.

3. Digestible energy (DE): This is an estimate of the amount of energy available to the horse from the hay. This figure will vary depending upon the stage of growth at which the grass was cut and harvested. Young grass will have a higher DE. As the crop matures, DE decreases as the lignin content increases. A DE reading of less than 1.65 Mcal/kilogram indicates a high level of indigestibility and should not be fed to horses. This could cause impaction colic.

4. Acid detergent fibre (ADF: Indicates the digestibility of fiber in the hay. ADF levels above 45% indicate poor nutritional levels, while values less than 31% indicate excellent quality hay.

When horses ran wild, their food supply consisted of different kinds of grasses grown in one pasture or field. Today we have lost that natural variety. An improved pasture is more than likely to contain just one variety of hay grass. Feeding just one type of hay can limit the nutritional value of the horse’s ration, especially trace minerals. Several different kinds of hay, ideally, should be fed. This will not only provide a more balanced diet but will also vary taste and texture characteristics of the feed as well.

A horse will also nibble eagerly on all kinds of vegetable matter. A good idea is to provide your horse with tree branches with leaves to chew on. He will not only be able to derive needed nutrients but will use his teeth and wear them down naturally. A horse’s teeth are continually growing, and because of domestication and modern feeding techniques, usually need to be rasped down once a year. In the wild the horse is apt to feed in such a way that the growth of his teeth is naturally kept under control.

In addition to being perfectly suited to extracting maximum nutritional value from grasses, a horse’s digestive system has other requirements which are often ignored by owners. The relatively small size of the stomach limits the amount of feed that can be safely consumed at one time. A horse is unable to vomit or belch. Eating a large volume of hay and grain concentrate twice a day, as most horses do, can be unhealthy and even dangerous. A horse should eat small amounts, many times a day.

One of the unique features of the horse’s digestive system is that even though he has but one stomach compartment, as opposed to ruminants like cows, there is a large microbial population in the cecum and colon. These microbes have the ability to break down and utilize the nutrients contained in forage. The peculiar shape of the colon which bends back upon itself numerous times reduces the rate at which digested food is able to pass. This allows more efficient utilization of roughages in the horse’s feed, but also can cause digestive problems when the horse is not fed correctly.

If you observe a horse eating in a barn situation, you can readily see that he prefers to eat off the ground. Most feeders require a horse to eat with their necks extended and their heads raised. This is an unnatural position for a horse to eat. Grass particles and debris fall back into his face and eyes. The horse cannot properly chew his food, and respiratory problems can result when the horse constantly inhales dust from the hay. It’s better to place hay on the ground in small amounts and in different places.

A diet of high-quality grass and hay should provide all the energy and protein needs non-working horses require. However, if a horse is in training, shows in performance classes or is ridden frequently, you might want to supplement with grain. Although this might be considered a departure from a purely natural approach to feeding, riding and working a horse is a complete departure from what nature intended as well.

In his natural environment as a wild, prey animal, a horse consumed very little grain. His very limited grain consumption took place in the fall from natural grasses that had gone to seed. This probably served to put on extra weight before winter. However, our energy demands on a horse have changed nutritional demands on him as well.

If a horse needs more energy, fat and protein in his diet than he is receiving from a grass and hay-based diet, there are several ways you can get him that additional nutrition. It’s a good idea to avoid feeding the quantity of sugar and molasses present in many commercial sweet feeds. Just as in humans, the ingestion of large amounts of sugar can play havoc with the horse’s insulin-regulating mechanism. Compounded grain products may also contain other undesirable ingredients such as fish and animal by-products.

You can get your horse the extra energy he needs through supplementing with rice and wheat bran or oats and barley. Limit the horse’s intake of prepared rations of grain except for pregnant and lactating mares and young foals. We want to feed naturally but we don’t want to reject out of hand advances in feed science. Educate yourself and choose supplements based on your horse’s true needs. Do not overfeed grain, however.

Natural supplements that are useful to include in a horse’s daily ration include flaxseed. Flaxseed is a good source for important Omega-3 fatty acids that are so important in human diets too. Omega-3 fatty acids can play a role in alleviating chronic inflammation and strengthen the immune system. They can improve the condition of a horse’s coat and hooves.

Food-grade diatomaceous earth (DE) supplements is a lesser-known source of trace minerals, internal and external parasite control, improved feed utilization and fly control. DE is a desiccant and can be used as a feed supplement or can be spread around stalls and the barn and will kill 75% of flies, fleas and mites that come into contact with it. Horse owners who use DE religiously claim that feeding DE to their foals and grown horses eliminates the need for chemical worming.

Horses themselves can be a judge of what trace minerals they need to consume. Have you ever seen a horse digging in the ground and begin to lick some special rock they’ve found? He seems to know instinctively what minerals he is lacking and where he can get them. This probably pertains more to a wild and varied environment than to a controlled and limited pasture environment. For that reason, it is a good idea to provide a free-choice salt and trace mineral product especially formulated for horses.

When horses are first offered this feeding option, they will initially consume a considerable amount but begin self-regulating very quickly. A supply of salt is essential to a horse’s health and well-being. In the wintertime salt should be manually added to a horse’s feed in order to ensure that he drinks the proper amount of water. Be sure to make available to the horse an unlimited supply of fresh, clean water.

Krill Bill: The Hidden Toll of Krill Oil Supplements

There is no better antidote to human hubris than a bathroom scale. For all that we’ve achieved, our species remains a minuscule part of Nature, and unlikely to be missed if we had anywhere else to go to. To put things in perspective, consider the krill – a tiny crustacean that does nothing but feed on plankton. Just one single subspecies of krill would be sufficient to displace the entire mass of humanity – twice.

Fortunately, our race has taken prompt remedial action by harvesting them for food. Their processed remains are now found in animal feed as a form of “protein bulk”, which is effectively a seafood equivalent of the “mystery” in “mystery meat”. As fisheries go they aren’t making huge profits from these sales, but the enterprising plough on nonetheless for a very good reason. It turns out that these little creatures secrete buckets of pure gold.

The benefits of krill oil are now emblazoned throughout health stores; salespeople on commission are tattooing them on their foreheads for good measure. There is at least one promising ingredient in them: a form of anti-oxidant called astaxanthin. Research on its potential health benefits is ongoing, but at least there’s no question of food safety. Most national regulatory bodies already classify it as a legal food colouring additive.

This colourful antioxidant is now poised to steal the fish-oil thunder, by virtue of its relative purity and superior benefits. Of course, it’s quite difficult to pinpoint exactly where the superiority lies, since fish oils contain a larger variety of anti-oxidants, all of which come with proven benefits. (It must be noted that uric acid, the most abundant form of anti-oxidant in the human body, is responsible for gout when it is too readily available.) Omega-3, an essential fatty acid, is also conspicuously absent in krill oils. This is because the oils are derived from deep-sea fish that have been feeding on omega-3 rich microalgae all its life, whereas individual krills have too small a body mass to store anything within its flesh.

The tattooed salespeople would probably remind you at this point that this also happens to be the reason krill oils are free from heavy metal poisons, since they can’t accumulate anything properly. However, any decent manufacturer would put their marine oil products through a rigorous distillation process. With fish oil, you have a purified condensate of fatty acid; with krill oil, you have a purified mixture of colour additives.

So if you don’t want to lose out on the potential benefits of krill oil, there’s one cost-effective solution you can take. Simply buy fish oils impregnated with astaxanthin, and you will have hedged your bets without accidentally upsetting the balance in our ecology, or the balance in your bank account. Do not under any circumstances neglect your omega-3 intake, since it’s now conclusively associated with a wide range of cardiovascular and degenerative disorders.

Besides, when we’re dealing with dietary supplements, the devil you know beats the devil you don’t. Who knows what those shrimp-like creatures are up to anyway? There are so many of them.